After Seoul floods, focus on plight of basement ‘banjiha’ home residents


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SEOUL — As rainwater gushed into Yoon Jin-hyeok’s semi-underground house on Monday, the evening of South Korea’s historic downpour, the 26-year-old and his two roommates scrambled to pump out water from their 390-square-foot house. However the water crammed as much as their knees in simply an hour.

“I felt so determined,” Yoon stated, as he scooped mud and filth out of his house days later.

Yoon considers himself fortunate. He survived. Just some miles away, a youngster, her mom and aunt, who had Down syndrome, drowned of their semi-basement house. In a close-by district, a resident with a developmental incapacity escaped however returned to rescue her cat, bought trapped inside, and died.

The file rainfall in elements of South Korea this week that killed a minimum of 11 drew into focus Seoul’s most weak residents, who reside in semi-underground flood hazards. The dearth of funding and planning to guard a whole lot of 1000’s of the town’s poor, aged and disabled has spurred widespread anger. Over the previous three years, the Seoul metropolis authorities slashed flood-related spending by a few third, from about $474 million to $323 million in 2022, finances paperwork present.

Seoul’s mayor this week introduced plans to part out half-basement models in response to the catastrophe, which residents and consultants say is simply a short-term answer to rising housing and earnings inequality within the space across the capital. House costs in Seoul have greater than doubled previously 5 years, with rising rates of interest and mortgages more and more pricing residents out from house possession. Landlords have sharply raised rental costs, pushing folks out of houses they will now not afford.

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“Although darkish, musty and unhygienic, it was the one reasonably priced possibility that I might discover,” Yoon, a pupil, stated of his house. “I agree it’s an inhumane atmosphere for folks to reside in, however we didn’t come right here as a result of we needed to. Do we actually produce other choices?”

This week’s devastating floods usually are not prone to be the final. Lately, Seoul has more and more been uncovered to excessive climate occasions reminiscent of heatwaves and floods. Low-lying areas in southern Seoul, even together with the prosperous Gangnam space, have repeatedly been hit. “For South Korea, local weather change will largely be felt by way of excessive climate occasions, primarily flooding in sure areas and droughts in others,” wrote the Institute for Coverage Research, a Washington-based center-left assume tank.

Within the aftermath of Monday and Tuesday’s file rainfall, horrific tales emerged of those that had been trapped inside when strain from the floods sealed their entrance doorways shut. Some escaped by way of a ground-level window that’s usually barricaded with steel bars as a safety measure. These houses, or “banjiha,” gained international consideration after their depiction within the Academy Award-winning film “Parasite.”

An aged couple, ages 90 and 87, banged on their window for assist as water rushed to their chests, and a neighbor upstairs broke open their window so they might escape, Korean media reported. A 67-year-old residing alone was watching tv when she seen her front room refill with water. As neighbors struggled to take away the steel safety bars with a noticed, the glass on her entrance door cracked, relieving the water strain and permitting her to flee.

These tales have sparked public outcry, prompting requires extra sources and a spotlight on public providers for marginalized communities, and an overhaul of the nation’s housing and local weather insurance policies so as to defend them.

“This torrential flood as soon as once more reminded us that disasters don’t deal with everybody equally. Specifically, it was most dangerous to the socially deprived, low earnings and disabled who reside in half-basements,” stated Jang Hye-young, a lawmaker from the liberal minority Justice Get together and a incapacity rights advocate.

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The cramped, tiny flats that hardly get any daylight are a relic of the Nineteen Seventies, when many basements had been constructed as bunkers in occasion of a North Korean assault. They had been initially banned from being lived in, however had been transformed into rental models attributable to a housing crunch. There are about 330,000 banjiha houses nationwide, with about 200,000 in Seoul, in line with the 2020 Census.

On Wednesday, the Seoul Metropolitan Authorities stated it might ban such areas from being lived in, and introduced a plan that provides financial incentives and a grace interval of 10 to twenty years to transform banjiha houses for nonresidential use. The banjiha areas would then be repurposed into warehouses or different amenities. The town authorities proposed public rental housing as various houses for residents.

“The coverage we’re engaged on will not be a makeshift answer, however a basic one to guard the security and supply our residents with housing stability,” Seoul Mayor Oh Se-hoon stated in an announcement.

For a lot of, Oh’s dedication was a deja vu second from 2010, when one other main flood inundated the Seoul metro space. Underneath Oh, who served a earlier stint as mayor between 2006 and 2011, the town proposed prohibiting the difficulty of recent development permits for banjiha models.

In 2012, the nationwide authorities handed new legal guidelines to ban the constructing of recent banjiha flats in habitually flooded areas. Nonetheless, 40,000 new banjiha models have been constructed within the capital since then, in line with the town.

This week’s renewed plan was criticized by each incapacity rights advocates and housing consultants, who say it overlooks basic housing inequalities in South Korea.

“It sounds good within the speedy time period, nevertheless it’s unrealistic and empty,” stated Jang, the lawmaker. “With out resolving basic issues, such because the scarcity of public rental housing within the metropolitan space, the extreme burden of housing prices on low-income households, and the insufficiency of the institutional hire management system, an announcement alone is not going to remedy something correctly.”

In response to the final main flood, Oh pledged that the town authorities would improve spending on flood prevention providers. Underneath his successor, who served from 2011 to 2020, the flood prevention finances elevated yearly till 2019, although it has plummeted since. Metropolis officers say the finances decreased as a result of main tasks had been accomplished.

However housing consultants say metropolis planners nonetheless have to prioritize flood prevention, notably for reasonably priced housing models.

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“Seoul Metropolitan Authorities slicing the flood prevention finances was the unsuitable factor to do. … To stop harm from pure disasters you should be making ready for them when there isn’t any catastrophe,” stated Kwon Dae-jung, an actual property research professor at Myongji College in Seoul.

With rising housing costs and an absence of public rental houses to accommodate residents who transfer out of banjiha models, policymakers want to plan long-term, complete insurance policies, stated Kim Seung-hee, a housing welfare professional at Kangwon Nationwide College in South Korea.

One main explanation for housing worth hikes is rising earnings inequality throughout class, generations and areas, that are affected by bigger financial and social traits. Policymakers have to cope with these challenges by systemically instituting an growth of public rental housing and housing subsidies, Kim stated.

“It needs to be preceded by a human-focused coverage shift from a give attention to the quantity of provide,” Kim stated. “The precedence of the housing assist needs to be set primarily based on the profile of the underprivileged.”

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